Evidence Based Practice in Nursing

Posted: November 8th, 2023

In-hospital acquired infections are one of the major drivers of healthcare costs in the contemporary medical setting. Also known as nosocomial infections, Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) happen while a patient is receiving treatment. Invasive procedures, including surgery, injections and indwelling medical devices are mostly linked to the infections. The etiology of the HAI will be dependent on the type of pathogen that spreads to the susceptible patient. Multiple studies highlight the importance of nurses in preventing and controlling HAIs. Nurses who have access to evidence-based guidelines concerning nosocomial prevention and control will show significant improvements in their performance. Nurses play a vital role in surveillance and measuring infection rates within individual medical institutions and compliance to best practices. While the World Health Organizations prioritizes the creation of HAI recommendations, best practice still includes the adoption of supporting evidence on infection prevention and control.

Criteria for Determining Credibility of Sources

            Nosocomial prevention and control has to be based on reliable and credible nursing practice. There are particular frameworks that professionals can use to critically reflect about the information they collect. One such framework is the 5 W Questions. The nurse critically reflects on who is the author, what is the purpose of the paper, where is the content from, why does the paper exist and how the report compare to others (Sbaffi & Rowley, 2017). Another feasible criterion is the smart check. The reader assesses the source, motive, and authority while reviewing any concept that seems untrue and applying the two-source test (Kington et al. 2021). The last applicable method with some credibility criteria is the CRAAP test. The framework assesses the currency, relevance, authority, accuracy and purpose of a report (Sbaffi & Rowley, 2017). I would recommend the use of all three frameworks to ascertain the reliability and credibility of sources.

Analyzing the Credibility and Relevance of Resources

            When assessing the credibility and relevance of sources, five key factors namely depth, objectivity, currency, authority and purpose are applied. Depth ensures that the source provides more than a simple overview of the subject in order to connect findings to the research topic (Sbaffi & Rowley, 2017). Objectivity is meant to negate any bias in the sources. External inclinations should not affect a report’s conclusion as scientific information does not profit from a closed point of view. Currency analyzes the timeliness of the information, guaranteeing it is up to date and applicable (Sbaffi & Rowley, 2017). Credible sources have to originate from people with years of experience and professional qualifications to justify their conclusions. Authority ensures the researches behind a report are affiliated to reputable organizations (Sbaffi & Rowley, 2017). The last factor helps determine the intended audience as research articles tend to be particular in nature.

Importance of Evidence in Nosocomial Infections

            Scientific evidence raises a nurse’s level of awareness regarding nosocomial infections, in turn improving their ability to prevent and control the diseases. Research shows that 43% of nurses require persistent education on information control to ensure continuous monitoring and prevention (Haque et al. 2018). Evidence provides clear guidelines, including benchmarks and standards for control. Compliance with such listed instructions significantly reduces the risk of pathogenic transmissions. Moreover, reducing the information gap on nosocomial infections acts as an incentive for attitudinal change towards HAI control measures (Haque et al. 2018). The more a nurse has access to HAI evidence, the more likely he or she is to commit to infection control. Overall, there is a positive correlation between access to evidence and the implementation of EBP guidelines.

Model for Evidence Practice Changes

            It is critical that change follows a given EBP model because they demystify what it takes to translate research into nursing practice. Different models entail different strategies and level of detail but share the same stages of the EBP cycle. Because nosocomial infections require organization-wide practice changes, the Advancing Research and Clinical Practice Through Close Collaboration model would be suitable. The framework prioritizes the building of resources, including mentors to facilitate sustainable point of care and a spirit of inquiry (Melnyk et al. 2017). The use of the model promises to tailor nosocomial infection prevention according to patient preferences. More important is how the model helps disseminate practice through professional collaboration. The AARC model will enhance practitioner belief on the importance of EBP implementation in HAI prevention and control.


            One of the core nursing characteristics in the contemporary healthcare setting is evidence-based practice. Given that nurses interact with almost every point of care; they play a vital role in HAI prevention. Nurses can use EBP based research to promote advanced control practices among direct care nurses. The implementation of the AARC model can facilitate the identification and establishment of stakeholders who support the increased use of EBP. The approach also helps answer organizational readiness to change while facilitating the integration of clinical expertise and patient values in HAI prevention and control. By means of constant surveillance, medical organizations can tailor strategies that improve patient outcomes by reducing risk of infection.


Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Abu Bakar, M. (2018). Health care-associated infections – an overview. Infection and Drug Resistance, 11, 2321–2333. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S177247

Kington, R. S., Arnesen, S., Chou, W. S., Curry, S. J., Lazer, D., & Villarruel, A. M. (2021). Identifying credible sources of health information in social media: Principles and attributes. NAM Perspectives, 10.31478/202107a. https://doi.org/10.31478/202107a

Melnyk, B. M., Fineout-Overholt, E., Giggleman, M., & Choy, K. (2017). A test of the ARCC model improves implementation of evidence-based practice, healthcare culture, and patient outcomes. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 14(1), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12188

Sbaffi, L., & Rowley, J. (2017). Trust and credibility in web-based health information: a review and agenda for future research. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(6), e218. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7579

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