Posted: November 8th, 2023
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
The chapter introduces the methodology that will be applied to assess the impact of The Hague Convention on international child abductions. The section will describe the qualitative approach and its underpinning theoretical basis. From there, a description of the research methods and research strategies will be provided to guide the reader on the steps to be taken to cover the data collection and data analysis. The methodology section also offers an explanation of the sampling method and the selection criteria for the data collection process. This part of the report will aim to ascertain research vigor and robustness for the derivation of interpretable and applicable information. The structure of the research methodology will play an essential role in the identification of lapses associated with the report. Overall, the methodology section will output data highlighting the reality of child abductions globally since the commencement of The Hague Convention.
Qualitative Approach to Non-Numerical Data
The report aims to explore the state of child abductions since the implementation of The Hague Convention. The report will have to draw from various sources, including scholarly and personal professional sentiments from various stakeholders with experience with child abduction. Therefore, the research will employ two qualitative approaches to non-numerical data. Content analysis will be applied to assess information from formal institutional reports and research articles, while a narrative analysis will be applied to evaluate the stories and accounts offered by the various stakeholders.
Content analysis is described as a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the manifest content of the communication. The chosen method entails reducing the volume of text collected from scholarly material to identify emerging groups and themes. Inductive reasoning will be used in the content analysis, meaning the research will focus on new information and theories emerging from the literary analysis. The researcher must have an open mind to identify answers relevant to the research question. There must be a chain of logic to how the content analysis ties responses to the research questions to ensure the credibility and replicability of the study.
Storytelling is an essential communication act that attempts to make sense of life experiences. The research intends to identify how The Hague Convention has impacted children, parents, and families since its implementation, hence the use of narrative analysis. The aim is to derive knowledge from self-reported experiences. For instance, how law enforcement has perceived societal changes since the implementation of the global decree on child abduction. Data will be collected from relevant individuals to tell their stories or experiences. The focus will be on the construct and expressions used in the narrations of the research participants. The objective is to create a summary of collective experiences with child abductions and their impact on children, parents, and families.
A descriptive research strategy will be employed to identify trends and categories related to the research question. The study strategy aims to understand the characteristics of a specific set of variables from a group of people. However, the method falls slightly short in reviewing the relationship between the variables. According to Aggarwal and Ranganathan, the research strategy is best for casting light on public affairs and collective issues through the process of data collection. Descriptive research is selected because the proposed reason does not focus on the reasons behind the implementation of The Hague Convention’s decree on child abduction but rather its impact (occurrence of the phenomenon). The focus is on the ‘what’ of research. Descriptive research can be perceived as almost similar to observational studies. However, the strategy is not limited to observations, as data can be collected from surveys and case studies.
The other research strategy follows an interpretive approach. The research paradigm is based on the assumption that life and social realities are not linear, singular, or objective. Instead, they are influenced by ontology and human experiences. The research approach is suited to the report because it facilitates understanding the issue from a socio-historical context. The approach will allow the research to identify social developments related to child abduction since the implementation of The Hague Convention. The goal is to generate sense from what is identified from literature and observations instead of applying theoretical frameworks. One disadvantage of this research strategy is that it relies heavily on data. Therefore, the report must ascertain it collects a comprehensive pool of data to guarantee positivist interpretations. Interpretive research is integrated into the report to explore hidden reasons behind complex decisions and social processes. The research strategy is anticipated to expound on why Saudi Arabia refused to join The Hague Convention.
Different sampling methods will be used for the different qualitative approaches adopted in the report. The narrative analysis will employ a non-probability sampling method. The research has to derive knowledge from specific individuals (relevant stakeholders) with experience with child abductions and The Hague Convention. The need for participant specificity underpins the choice of non-probability sampling. Galloway informs that the sampling approach has a higher risk of sampling bias because the researcher determines the participants. To counter this gap, the researcher will work with peers or educators to identify and approach individuals who are perceived to have experiences related to the research questions. The sampling method will have to adopt some convenience sampling as the report will prioritize individuals most accessible to the study to lower operational costs.
On the other hand, non-probability sampling will also be applied for the content analysis. The sampling approach posits that any member of a population can be selected. The goal is to produce summaries from the literature representative of the research question. A wide pool of academic reports on the issue of child abduction and The Hague Convention will be generated via a comprehensive online search. Only academic databases like Wiley Online Library, Lexis, Scopus, and Bloomberg Law, will be used for the search. Out of the hundreds of articles, books, and white reports identified, it is anticipated that any can offer insight into the research issue. The use of non-probability sampling will negate any biases during the selection process of the various academic sources since it will be done by more than one individual.
Data Collection Method
The content analysis will follow the tenets of an advanced online search. Different commercial vendors avail their data sets, interfaces, and search engines for people to use to access data. For instance, the Scpus database has an A-Z listing that provides users with links to digital scholarly material. Keyword searching will be the main data collection method applied, with The Hague Convention and Child Abduction being two of the primary keywords. An advanced search will be applied to ensure that only recently published materials are collected. The goal is to derive knowledge of the most recent happenings in child abductions. Logical connectors will be used to ensure only relevant sources are identified. Therefore, only databases that allow the use of logical connectors will be integrated into the data collection process.
The narrative analysis will employ semi-structured questionnaires as the main data collection process. The participants will be required to complete questionnaires with open-ended questions and weighted statements. Butina informs that semi-structured interviews are most appropriate for deriving information on lived experiences because the researcher benefits from written responses and can also assess non-verbal communication from research participants. The interviews will be open-ended to allow the participants to convey their experiences, sentiments, and anticipations. The role of the researcher will be to only guide the interview process. The digital data collection tool will be submitted via email, after which the research participants will have a specified period to submit the filled-in documents.
Six criteria will be used to assess identified online resources: accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, appearance, and coverage. Authority verifies the legitimacy of the authors and institutions behind the articles. Accuracy focuses on the factual information contained in the sources. Objectives center on identifying any points of bias, such as advertising. Currency looks at the date of publication and any information on whether a source has been revised. Coverage determines whether the topic is holistically addressed, including the inclusion of citations and support links. Appearance focuses on the organization of the sources and that external links are functional. Authority will also be applied as a criterion for assessing the output of the semi-structured interviews. The completeness of personal information will equally be decisive in filtering the semi-structured interviews.
Data Analysis Approach
The content and narrative analysis will employ the same data analysis approach: textual coding. According to Kleinheskel et al., the process begins with the researcher identifying the level of analysis that they want. The researcher also focuses on the number of concepts they wish to code for. Such a decision influences the flexibility of the coding process because it determines whether additional categories will be included or deleted. An open approach will ensure flexibility in the coding process due to the high amount of information contained in the content and narrative analysis. The coding process will focus on the frequency of a concept to generate categories. Coding for the existence of a concept would limit the data analysis because it will not identify the weight of a concept. The more a concept appears in the coding process, the more important it is to the study.
The next step in the coding process is the categorization of concepts to distinguish them. Categories are based on the researcher’s coding rules, which determine which segment each concept belongs to. The rules also help ensure that data is categorized logically. However, when coming up with the rules of the coding process, the research will have to determine the level of implication. The researcher must decide on which words, phrases, or statements imply the concept. The researcher must also decide if the mentions should be explicit or implied. Once the researcher has decided on all these rules, the report will proceed to translate the text into codes. The coding process’s validity will depend on the research remaining consistent with its codes.
Coding will be done using digital spreadsheets (software). The approach helps ensure the coding process is efficient and done properly. Coding in hand would be problematic given the large amount of data anticipated to be derived from the data collection process. With the help of the software, the report will be able to draw conclusions and generalizations. A relational analysis will be used to ensure individual concepts show inherent meanings and for the identification of relationships between the identified concepts.
The chapter outlines the specific methodological choices to be applied in the scientific report. The segment highlights the philosophical underpinnings behind the research and informs the reader on exactly how the research is designed and will be conducted. The reader can employ this section to observe how the researcher demonstrates their understanding of the issue at hand and research theory. More importantly, there is the justification of the methodological choices included in the study. For instance, the narrative analysis is a proven method for deriving information on lived experiences. Important to note is that the research methodology is cross-sectional, meaning that data us collected during one instance in time. The approach is meant to provide speed, an ease of costs, flexibility, and enhanced control over the data.
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Aggarwal, Rakesh, and Priya Ranganathan. “Study Designs part 2-Descriptive Studies”, Perspectives in Clinical Research, 10, no. 1 (2019): 34-36.
Bengtsson, Mariette, “How to Plan and Perform a Qualitative Study using Content Analysis,” Nursing Plus Open, 2, vol. 1(2016): 8-14.
Butina, Michelle, “A Narrative Approach to Qualitative Inquiry,” Clinical Laboratory Science, 28, no. 3 (2015): 190-197.
Dhivyadeepa, E. “Sampling Techniques in Educational Research.” Paperback Publishers, 2015.
Drisko, James W.., Maschi, Tina. Content Analysis. Oxford University Press, 2016.
Galloway, Alison. “Non-Probability Sampling.” In The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement. Elsevier, (2005): 859-864.
Gubrium, Jaber F.., Holstein, James A. Varieties of Narrative Analysis. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications, 2012.
Hseih, Fang, and Sarah Shannon. “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis,” SAGE Journals, 15, no. 9 (2015): 1-13.
Hunter, Sally. “Analyzing and Representing Narrative Data: The Long and Winding Road.” Current Narratives and Embracing Multiple Dimensions, 2, no. 3 (2010): 44-54.
Josselson, Ruthellen., Hammack, Phillip L. Essentials of Narrative Analysis. American Psychological Association, 2021.
Kleinheskel, Aaron, Nicole Winston, Huda Tawfik, and Tasha Wyatt. “Demystifying content analysis.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education”, 84, no. 1 (2020): 7113.
Pyrczak, Fred. Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Evaluation. Paperback Publishing, 2014.
Quinlan, Margaret. “Interpretive Research’. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods. John Wiley & Sons, (2017), 1-12.
Spuy, Alicia and Lakshmi Jayak, “Making Sense of the Unknown: A Narrative Analysis of COVID-19 Stories as Told by WSU Students”, Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 2, no. 6 (2021): 183-199.
Marriette Bengtsson, “How to Plan and Perform a Qualitative Study using Content Analysis,” Nursing Plus Open, 2, vol. 1(2016): 9.
Drisko, James W.., Maschi, Tina. Content Analysis. (Oxford University Press, 2016): 106.
 Marriette Bengtsson, “How to Plan and Perform a Qualitative Study using Content Analysis,” Nursing Plus Open, 2, vol. 1(2016): 9.
 Id, 10.
Alicia Spuy and Lakshmi Jayak, “Making Sense of the Unknown: A Narrative Analysis of COVID-19 Stories as Told by WSU Students”, Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 2, no. 6 (2021): 183.
 Id, 184.
Rakesh Aggarwal and Priya Ranganathan. “Study Designs part 2-Descriptive Studies”, Perspectives in Clinical Research, 10, no. 1 (2019): 34.
 Id, 35.
Margaret Quinlan. “Interpretive Research’. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods. (John Wiley & Sons, 2017): 2.
 Id, 3.
 Id, 4.
Alison Galloway, “Non-Probability Sampling.” In The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement. (Elsevier, 2005): 860.
E. Dhivyadeepa, “Sampling Techniques in Educational Research.” (Paperback Publishers, 2015): 54.
Aaron, Chuey, Asaba Mika, Bridgers Sophie, Carrillo Brandon, Dietz Griffin, Garcia Teresa A., Julia Liu Shari, Merrick Megan, and Radwan Samaher. “Moderated Online Data-Collection for Developmental Research: Methods and Replications.” Frontiers in psychology, 12, no. 2, (2021): 2.
Michelle Butina, “A Narrative Approach to Qualitative Inquiry”, Clinical Laboratory Science, 28, no. 3 (2015): 192.
Josselson, Ruthellen., Hammack, Phillip L. Essentials of Narrative Analysis. (American Psychological Association, 2021): 63.
Pyrczak, Fred. Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Evaluation. (Paperback Publishing, 2014): 23.
 Id, 24.
Aaron Kleinheskel, Nicole Winston, Huda Tawfik, and Tasha Wyatt. “Demystifying content analysis.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education”, 84, no. 1 (2020): 7113.
Sally Hunter. “Analyzing and Representing Narrative Data: The Long and Winding Road.” Current Narratives and Embracing Multiple Dimensions, 2, no. 3 (2010): 47.
Hseih, Fang, and Sarah Shannon. “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis”, SAGE Journals, 15, no. 9 (2015): 5.
 Id, 6.
 Gubrium, Jaber F.., Holstein, James A. Varieties of Narrative Analysis. (SAGE Publications, 2012): 123.
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