Community Assessment and Analysis

Posted: October 17th, 2013

Community Assessment and Analysis







Community Assessment and Analysis

Values and beliefs

Hispanic community in San Antonio Texas has held to its cultures for long. They are far from development and this is an area of immigrants. The deportation rates are very high and these people live in fear and poverty. They still belief in the traditional treatment methods that include the use of herbs and different plants. Hispanics use folk healing more frequently for chronic conditions. Healing through the folk system is practiced by “curanderos” or “santeros”. Curanderos are naturalist healers who use herbs and plants to heal illness. Santeros, on the other hand, use the power of the Saints to heal, aid, and counsel individuals. We have some who use spiritual healing by the power of the saints while others do counseling. However, they have embraced the different health programs that have been introduced to their community. Most of the Spanish speaking countries are Roman Catholic and so religion influences their decisions. Religion healthcare is what Hispanics have lived on and it has been largely accepted due to the strong faith. They are mostly poor but they have programs from the migrant health promotions. This community has family and community values. The community values tradition, supportive families, compassionate communities and an unwavering commitment to building the brightest possible future. They work together to improve on infrastructure and water among other basic needs. It is evident that they spend their little income on alcohol and drugs that have seen them die. (Valen, Naravan, Wedeking, 2012).

Health perception and management

There are many diseases compared to other areas of Texas. Diabetes has hit more than 50% of the inhabitants of this region. This is an area with an increasing population and this makes it hard for the medical attention to be successful. The people are into alcohol that has killed many of them. They have to travel long distances to look for medical aid and this makes the mortality rates higher. Many immigrants would rather die than being deported to their countries of origin. Others would rather die working than forfeiting their wages for treatment (Valen, Naravan, Wedeking, 2012). Up to 41 percent of the Valley residents are uninsured, compared to 15 percent nationally Lack of health providers is another problem but the programs assist them. We have some barriers due to language and mistrusting the system. Some of these programs are Promotores Community Program (PCP). They help in educating the community on the importance of a healthy living. They teach them on leadership skills, peer pressure, and how to support the community. Immunization is not common because of the distances covered in order to access them. Young children die because of lack of immunization. The death rates here are very high because other than ignoring treatment some people have taken to drugs that have raised mortality rates. This is an area of immigrants and so they fear deportation (Lancer, Patria, 2012).


In nutrition and metabolic, obesity is the biggest problem. This is a result of poor diet so both the children, and the adults suffer obesity and other cardiovascular diseases. Lack of nutrition education including the different values in foods has contributed to this. In the year 2009, the supplemental nutrition assistance program was introduced, and they gave food stamps to the poor homes (Lancer, Patria, 2012). Other programs like Food banks and WIC got involved in feeding them. By demonstrating cookery lessons, and other physical lessons, Hispanics are able to stay healthy. The people in this region are poor and cannot of food. That is why food stamps have been introduced to cater for the needy. They have to look for clean water and this is another hazard. They dwell on vast foods that the programs are trying to get rid of. The littering is enough prove of how much of junk food they live on. In the school they have food dispensers that encourage unhealthy feeding.

Elimination (Environmental and Health concerns)

There are many environmental concerns in San Antonio, Texas, starting with the rampant air pollution from vehicles, and the Kelly Air Force Base that has been a major aircraft maintenance ground from as early as 1950s. The majority of the population, who are Hispanic, has complained about health issues caused by the toxic waste found in the base. The base has been cited to produce around 282,000 tons of toxic and hazardous waste per year, which is quite a major health issue (, 2012). These toxic pollutants include air, water, as well as the soil, which has a far-reaching effect on the neighborhood surrounding the air base. Many people have complained that the damping of toxic waste is done knowingly by the air base. This includes open pit dumping that overflows with toxic waste when it rains, and reaches people in their neighborhoods. However, the people assert that no measures have been taken despite their complaints. Thus, the airbase continues to pose the greatest threat in San Antonio in terms of pollution and health related problems (, 2012). This needs to be eliminated or measures should be taken to prevent the effects of the toxic waste.





Dulin, Michael F.; Tapp, Hazel; Smith, Heather A.; Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta de; Furuseth, Owen J. (2011). community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population. Implementation Science, 2011, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p38-48

Lancer Julnes, Patria; Johnson. (2011).  Strengthening Efforts to Engage the Hispanic Community in Citizen-Driven Governance: An Assessment of Efforts in Utah Public Administration Review, v. 71, iss. 2, pp. 221-31

Oyetayo OO, James C, Martinez A, Roberson K, Talbert RL. (2011). The Hispanic Diabetes Management Program: Impact ofcommunity pharmacists on clinical outcomes. Journal Of The American Pharmacists Association: Japha [J Am Pharm Assoc, ISSN: 1544-3450, Vol. 51 (5), pp. 623-6 (2012). Kelly Air Force Base: San Antonio’s Dumping Ground. Retrieved from

Valen, Mieca S.; Narayan, Suzanne; Wedeking, Lorene. (2012). an Innovative Approach To Diabetes Education For A Hispanic Population Utilizing Community health Workers. Journal of Cultural Diversity, Spring2012, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p10-17








Functional Health Patterns Community Assessment


Functional Health Patterns



Value/Belief Pattern



  • Predominant ethnic and cultural groups along with beliefs related to health.
  • There is a strong attachment to indigenous cultures. The community still believes in traditional treatment methods that uses hers and plants.
  • The advancement of modern healthcare techniques has been promoted by Christianity
  • Predominant spiritual beliefs in the community that may influence health.
  • The community has great respect for natural healers or “santeros” who claim to posses spiritual powers.
  • Availability of spiritual resources within or near the community (churches/chapels, synagogues, chaplains, Bible studies, sacraments, self-help groups, support groups, etc.).
  • The community is in close proximity of both churches and spiritual shrines. The Roman Catholic church has however made great achievements in converting most of the Hispanics to Christianity.
  • Do the community members value health promotion measures? What is the evidence that they do or do not (e.g., involvement in education, fundraising events, etc.)?
. The Hispanics value developmental activities for example participating in building the infrastructure. They engage in group projects to solve sanitation, water and other societal problems.
  • What does the community value? How is this evident?
Most of the community values family ties. Within their culture, they have structures like supportive families as well as compassionate communities that clearly show the priority given to the institution in the society.
  • On what do the community members spend their money? Are funds adequate?
Most of their incomes are spent on developing their social lives. They do not spend much on leisure activities like drinking and drugs.



Health Perception/Management



  • Predominant health problems: Compare at least one health problem to a credible statistic (CDC, county, or state).
  • The major health issues include a predisposition to diabetes, asthma and HIV / AIDS. For example, Latinos accounted for 20% of new HIV / aids infections on the US. The number of Hispanic adults having asthma contributes to around 26% of he US population
  • Immunization rates (age appropriate).
  • Very low immunization rates among  Hipanic children. Around 77 percent of Hispanic children aged 19-35 months of age have received the recommended 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of polio, 1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, and 3 doses of Hib vaccine
  • Appropriate death rates and causes, if applicable.
  • The age bracket with the highest death rates was 60-69 years. The main causes of these deaths were heart diseases, cancer and accidents.
  • Prevention programs (dental, fire, fitness, safety, etc.): Does the community think these are sufficient?
  • The main prevention program that assists this community is PCP. PCP provides advice on healthy living with a focus on supportive communities and leadership skills.
  • Available health professionals, health resources within the community, and usage.
  • Most of the communities do not have access to health facilities. The existing facilities are over-utilized and understaffed.
  • Common referrals to outside agencies.
  • The United Nations programs also operate in these areas for example WHO.



  • Indicators of nutrient deficiencies.
  • Obesity rates or percentages:
  • The highest obesity rates are found among the black Hispanics (44.1%). This mainly caused by poor dietary behavior as well as a lack of nutrition education
  • Compare to CDC statistics.
  • Affordability of food/available discounts or food programs and usage (e.g., WIC, food boxes, soup kitchens, meals-on-wheels, food stamps, senior discounts, employee discounts, etc.).
  • The Food banks and WIC have attempted to substitute food shortages and nutrition deficiencies by introducing food stamps and relief food distribution.
  • Availability of water (e.g., number and quality of drinking fountains).
  • The availability of safe drinking water is a difficulty for most white and black Hispanics
  • Fast food and junk food accessibility (vending machines).
  • Children and adults prefer junk food that is easily accessible in street-side vending machines and in school grounds.
  • Evidence of healthy food consumption or unhealthy food consumption (trash, long lines, observations, etc.).
  • Most of the populations scramble in fast food joints for junk food. There are also large volumes of littering in dumpsites that displayed the huge consumption of fast foods.
  • Provisions for special diets, if applicable.
  • There are no special diets for the Hispanic masses.
  • For schools (in addition to above):
  • Nutritional content of food in cafeteria and vending machines: Compare to ARS 15-242/The Arizona Nutrition Standards (or other state standards based on residence)
  • Amount of free or reduced lunch
  • Most states have regulations on the content but Hispanic-inhabited regions have lax or sometimes, no regulations on nutrition levels. Schools do not actively participate in regulating the type of food their students consume.
Elimination (Environmental Health Concerns)



  • Common air contaminants’ impact on the community.
  • Air has been polluted due to the smoking cars, fire smoke, dust and pesticides. The pollution contributes to deaths by asthma and other respiratory complications like pneumonia.
  • Noise.
  • Increased usage of cars and trucks contributes to noise pollution.
  • Waste disposal.
  • The sewage systems are not properly designed therefore raw sewage is left to run on the surface.
  • Pest control: Is the community notified of pesticides usage?
  • The communities are ignorant of the proper methods of handling, usage and disposal of pesticides.
  • Hygiene practices (laundry services, hand washing, etc.).
  • Their hygiene routine is low because of water scarcity and lack of education in the area
  • Bathrooms: Number of bathrooms; inspect for  cleanliness, supplies, if possible.
  • The Hispanic population have low personal cleanliness levels
  • Universal precaution practices of health providers, teachers, members (if applicable).
  • Temperature controls (e.g., within buildings, outside shade structures).
  • There are no air conditioners to stabilize the temperature within buildings.
  • Safety (committee, security guards, crossing guards, badges, locked campuses).
  • The unemployed youth engage in petty crime as well as organized violent activities. The local police and private security officers are not enough to contain these criminals.



  • Community fitness programs (gym discounts, P.E., recess, sports, access to YMCA, etc.).
There are many campaigns throughout the united states urging the Hispanic community to get out and get active. A new program known as Fitness Feria, consists of more than 150 health experts and organizations promote better understanding of the U.S. sports and fitness system so Hispanic families can become healthier. Fitness Feria is an expo that highlights volleyball, cycling, karate and many more activities for everyone from babies to big kids, and their parents.


CULPEPPER, Q. (2012, July 17). Program aims to keep Hispanic community healthy, fit. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Recreational facilities and usage (gym, playgrounds, bike paths, hiking trails, courts, pools, etc.).
Hispanic and low income neighborhoods were significantly more likely than white neighborhoods not to have recreational facilities. Recreational facilities and the resources they offer are not equitably distributed. The presence of parks in poor and minority areas suggest that improving the types and quality of resources in parks could be an important strategy to increase physical activity and reduce socioeconomic disparities.


Moore, L. V., Diez Roux, A. V., Evenson, K. R., & McGinn, A. P. (2008, February 25). Availability of Recreational Resources. National Institute of Health. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Safety programs (rules and regulations, safety training, incentives, athletic trainers, etc.).
Hispanics work in a variety of areas across the united states so it is important that all safety be presented in a way in which they are able to understand it. Hispanics now comprise more than 20 percent of construction employees. Programs are breaking down barriers of language, literacy and culture, which have a big impact on safety.


Construction Safety: Best Practices in Training Hispanic Workers. (n.d.). Construction Safety: Best Practices in Training Hispanic Workers. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Injury statistics or most common injuries.
Hispanics suffer disproportionately high rates of unintentional injuries. Hispanic children have among the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any racial/ethnic group of U.S. children regarding unintentional injuries.


Acosta, D. (2008, November 29). Unintentional Injuries in the Hispanic/Latino Population. Unintentional Injuries Content. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Evidence of sedentary leisure activities (amount of time watching TV, videos, and computer).
Gardening and/or yard work and walking were cited as the most frequent leisure time physical activities. Hispanic women are more likely to be sedentary than the general population. Lack of time is a reason that is often given for not engaging in non- work related physical activity. The Hispanic culture places more value on rest and relaxation and hence views leisure as a sedentary activity.


The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports – E-Newsletter. (2007). The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports – E-Newsletter. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Means of transportation.


Public transportation is more likely to be used by Hispanics and disadvantaged groups than the general population. Hispanic workers carpooled at a rate of 16.4 percent, compared with 9.5 percent for non-Hispanic workers.


American Community Survey. (n.d.). 5-Year Release Details. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from




  • Sleep routines/hours of your community: Compare with sleep hour standards (from National Institutes of Health [NIH]).
Hispanics are more frequently uninsured than Non-Hispanic Whites, and Hispanics carry a disproportionate share of drug abuse, and HIV/AIDS diagnoses. Sleep disordered breathing is strongly associated with obesity, diabetes, use of alcohol, and smoking, all of which are highly prevalent in the Hispanic population. Also, organizations such as the American Academy or Sleep Medicine, the NIH, and the National Sleep Foundation have sleep educational web-based programs to educate the medical establishment and the public on the health consequences sleep disorders.


SLEEP – Sleep Health in U.S. Hispanic Population. (n.d.). SLEEP – Sleep Health in U.S. Hispanic Population. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Factors affecting sleep:
  • Shift work prevalence of community members
  • Environment (noise, lights, crowding, etc.)
  • Consumption of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and drugs
  • Homework/Extracurricular activities
  • Health issues


 In the Hispanic community many suffer sleep disorders. Some disorders arise from shift work disorder. Often many Hispanic’s work in a low-income job which usually means working in a factory or taking a less than desirable shift or working overnight. Other factors such a drug abuse or alcohol can impair sleep. Illnesses such as obesity, disease, and smoking can all foster sleeping disorders. Since Hispanics are at a greater risk for obesity, sleep apnea is also another concern that can affect sleep patterns.


SLEEP – Sleep Health in U.S. Hispanic Population. (n.d.). SLEEP – Sleep Health in U.S. Hispanic Population. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from





  • Primary language: Is this a communication barrier?
Primary language is Spanish and this can often lead to language barriers and miscommunication. However, the availability of interpreters is on the rise, more and more American’s are beginning to speak Spanish.
  • Educational levels: For geopolitical communities, use and compare the city in which your community belongs with the national statistics.
In Texas the Hispanic/Latino culture accounts for 9,460,921 people according to

Regarding education, the proportion of Hispanics 25 years old and over with high school diplomas increased from 45.7 percent in 1983 to 53.1 percent in 1993. Despite that improvement, in 1993 Hispanics were still much less likely to be high school graduates than were non-Hispanic Whites. About 9.0 percent of Hispanic young adults reported that they had a bachelor’s degree, compared with about 26.8 percent of non-Hispanic White adults.


The Hispanic Population. (n.d.). The Hispanic Population. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from


  • Opportunities/Programs:
  • Educational offerings (in-services, continuing education, GED, etc.)
  • Educational mandates (yearly in-services, continuing education, English learners, etc.)
  • Special education programs (e.g., learning disabled, emotionally disabled, physically disabled, and gifted)
The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans was established in September 1990 by President George H.W. Bush to provide advice and guidance to the secretary of education on education issues related to Hispanics and address academic excellence and opportunities for the Hispanic community. The commission was tasked with: eliminating education inequities and disadvantages faced by Hispanic Americans; increasing Hispanic participation in federal education programs; eliminating unintended regulatory barriers to Hispanic participation in federal education programs; promoting and publicizing education opportunities and programs of interest to Hispanics; and encouraging private sector, state and community involvement in improving education for Hispanics.


White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics. (2011, December 30). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from

  • Funding resources (tuition reimbursement, scholarships, etc.).


  • Without a doubt the Hispanic Scholarship Fund is one of the largest and most well recognized resources for Latino scholarships. The HSF is a clearinghouse for educational information related to Hispanic students and has built enough influence and respect to draw millions of dollars in funding from large corporate sponsors like McDonalds and Wal-Mart.
  • The Hispanic Heritage Foundation has taken on a mission to inspire Hispanic students of all heritages to become extraordinary civic leaders. The organization specifically offers a number of annual Hispanic Heritage student scholarship awards.
  • The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) delivers droves of information relative to the institutions most invested in Hispanic students. HACU’s list of scholarships is regularly updated. Corporate partners such as Gap, General Motors, and Home Depot fund these awards. All HACU scholarship recipients demonstrate a balance of academic motivation and financial need. Monetary awards range from $1,000 to $2,800.
  • For Hispanic students interested in journalism or broadcast media, the National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ) scholarships run between $1,000 and $5,000. All offer specific relevancy for Latinos who are sadly invisible in mainstream journalism.

Scholarships for Hispanics. (n.d.). Hispanic Scholarship Programs and College Opportunities for Hispanic Students. Retrieved May 22, 2012, from





  • Age levels.
  • Most of the young Latinos view themselves as being in the middle of two cultures and struggle with understanding their identity. The older population of Latinos still has low self-perception.
  • Programs and activities related to community building (strengthening the community).
  • The Latinos have community-based coalitions to provide capacity building. They mobilize each other through health organizations as well as churches and schools to build their communities.
  • Community history.
  • Pride indicators: Self-esteem or caring behaviors.
  • The adolescents have higher self esteem than any other social group because of their education levels, business links and exposure to other cultures
  • Published description (pamphlets, Web sites, etc.).
  • Journal of Adolescent Research that contained the issue “Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem of Latino Adolescents: Distinctions Among The Latino Populations”




  • Interaction of community members (e.g., friendliness, openness, bullying, prejudices, etc.).
  • Latino Americans tended to avoid competition or activities that would set them apart from their own group. The aspect of machismo influences cross gender interaction. There is a general hatred of the European Americans
  • Vulnerable populations:
  • Why are they vulnerable?
  • How does this impact health?
  • The black Hispanics are the most vulnerable populations. This is because they are predisposed to catching very many diseases through their low health status. Most of them are also poor and this makes it difficult to afford treatment.
  • Power groups (church council, student council, administration, PTA, and gangs):
  • How do they hold power?
  • Positive or negative influence on community?
  • The church and the school are the two groups that influence most of the Latino Americans. These two groups contribute to national building, poverty alleviation and resource allocation among other activities that make them influential. They both have positive impact on the society by imparting skills and good morals on the Latinos.
  • Harassment policies/discrimination policies.
  • The Northern European police are cited as the worst terrorists of the Latino community. Police from North America harass Hispanics during random raids, drug raids or other police programmes. The central US government has however targeted Latinos I the healthcare scheme that was launched by the Obama regime.
  • Relationship with broader community:
  • Police
  • Fire/EMS (response time)
  • Other (food drives, blood drives, missions, etc.)
  • Hispanics are generally welcomed in other communities. Their relationship with other law enforcing agencies both local and international has not been very cordial. The Latinos also cooperate with NGOs





  • Relationships and behavior among community members.
  • Early sexual activity among adolescents exposes young people to health-related consequences, particularly sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The older age bracket from around 45 also has a higher sexual activity.
  • Educational offerings/programs (e.g., growth and development, STD/AIDS education, contraception, abstinence, etc.).
  • The fight against HIV/AIDS and other predisposing behavior is mainly spearheaded by NGOs like CDC. CDC has programmes to counter the spread of HIV by transsexuals and prostitutes. CDC also engages in CBO mobilization to provide awareness on the different contraceptives, diseases and other information on STIs
  • Access to birth control.
  • Most families cannot access birth control due to unavailability, cost of ignorance on such methods.
  • Birth rates, abortions, and miscarriages (if applicable).
  • The current birth rate for Latinos in this area was 80.3 births per 1000. The number of miscarriages also went down to 26% from 34%.
  • Access to maternal child health programs and services (crisis pregnancy center, support groups, prenatal care, maternity leave, etc.).
  • Most pregnant females cannot access healthcare for their babies, as it is unavailable and expensive. The teenage pregnancy rate is almost twice as high compared to other females globally. Therefore, many groups have come up to form crisis centers to support them like the Florida Pregnancy Support Services Program





  • Delinquency/violence issues.
  • A large number of youth drop out of primary and secondary levels of education to join street gangs or peddle drugs in the hope of achieving income stability.
  • Crime issues/indicators.
  • There is an increase in gang activity in San Antonio. The youth in these gangs engage in drug peddling and petty crime around the neighborhood.
  • Poverty issues/indicators.
  • Around a quarter of the Hispanic population, live in poverty. About 32.4 percent of Hispanic males and 31.1 percent of Hispanic females were unemployed in 2010 and the number is bound to increase over this economically harsh period. Generally, Hispanics also earn way less than non-Hispanic whites. All these factors coupled with high rates of school dropouts leads to more poverty among Latinos.
  • CPS or APS abuse referrals: Compare with previous years.
  • The rate of domestic abuse in Latino families has gone down compared to previous years. In 2002, 64% of all families had either experienced a violent incident or been a victim. This number has since dropped to about 55%. The Hispanic culture encourages wives to bear their abusive husbands and vice versa.
  • Drug abuse rates, alcohol use, and abuse: Compare with previous years.
  • The number of Latinos abusing drugs has increased as compared with previous years. 6,713 adults in Texas were included in a survey that investigated the prevalence of drug abuse among Hispanics of which 1,690 persons admitted to either abusing drugs or formerly taking drugs. This was an 11% rise in drug abusers from the previous year.
  • Stressors.
  • Stress management resources (e.g., hotlines, support groups, etc.).
  • Most of the chronically ill Latinos receive stress management therapy in their hospitals. The rest of the masses are supported by government counselors who are easily reached.
  • Prevalent mental health issues/concerns:
  • How does the community deal with mental health issues
  • Mental health professionals within community and usage
  • Rates for most mental disorders among Latinos are similar to that of the overall population. However, rates vary among Latino sub‐groups, and rates for most mental disorders are higher for US‐born Latinos than for Latino immigrants. The community has a general stigma against such disadvantaged individuals. There are mental health professionals around the Hispanic-inhabited areas that assist mentally ill people. They include American Society of Hispanic Psychiatry (ASHP), Hispanic Medical Professionals and National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) among others.
  • Disaster planning:
  • Past disasters
  • Drills (what, how often)
  • Planning committee (members, roles)
  • Policies
  • Crisis intervention plan
  • Latino states have been hit by many disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. Low-income immigrant Latinos are particularly vulnerable to disasters because they are both ill prepared and disproportionately affected. A large population of Latinos cannot be accessed by the Emergency Management Systems.




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