Criminal Justice

Posted: November 27th, 2013

Criminal Justice

Chapter 12: The Second Victimization

This chapter is about second victimization in the criminal justice system. It covers crime victims or survivors and addresses the issue of victimizing the criminals. It provides various ways of collecting information such as filming, photographing horrible scenes, printing the names of victims, scrutinizing the past life of victims and interviewing friends and neighbors. Tarver (2002) reveals that victims usually become psychologically numb after the crimes have occurred and even become confused or disoriented. This chapter provides an overview of such a wide range of victimizing different groups within the system of criminal justice. The author presents different issues in a balanced and social content of different victims after the effects of the crime.

The author reveals on the worst-case scenario of secondary victimization that is termed as the re-traumatization of sexual assault and victims of rape. This is an indirect result of assault, which is an outcome of individual responses and association to the victims. It encompasses secondary victimization, which includes victim blaming, improper behaviors or language through accessing victims’ post assaults. It also covers cases of secondary injuries, which are mostly caused by families or friends. The author points out that many victims become silent incase they do not get any support for a given period. In addition, this chapter indicates the way victims are blamed for keeping quiet when they are sexually assaulted.

Consequently, it focuses on the criminal justice system that is being carried out in the second victimization. It covers the relations between the offenders, victims, survivors and those legal actors who have responsibilities on criminal offence. The legal actors are categorized in different ways including the police, judges, prosecutors and juries. They categorize crimes and each crime is treated differently. Later, the police carry out investigation thus arresting the offenders and taking them to court for further investigations. This is done in order to help in fear reduction to victims and ensure that justice is done.

Chapter 13: A Description of Victim Services

            This chapter is a description of victim services within the criminal justice system. It covers the counseling system provided to victims of rape especially those who are sexually assaulted. Cases of rape victims are many and they are given guidance and counseling on the way they are supposed to cope up with stress while waiting for legal action to take place. In this chapter, Tarver (2002) points out that the type of help that victims receive will make them feel better. He emphasizes that most victims of sexual assaults or any other violence cases usually experience emotional and interpersonal problems after a long period after the crime has occurred. Thus, he recommends that there are designed centers for rape cases where victims should be taken for guidance and counseling or any other supportive services.

Consequently, this chapter reviews on domestic violence programs that play a crucial role in coping up with stress. One of the programs provided in this chapter is Battered Women’s Shelters (Tarver, 2002). This program plays a vital role in supporting women with cases of domestic violence. The author discusses on ways of helping the battered women to overcome stress and the legal action that should be taken to promote justice in the society. In addition, the victim or witness programs are provided in order to enable the government to collect enough in formation on victims who have been assaulted. Moreover, this program enables the police or private investigators to collect enough data from the eyewitnesses or from the chosen survey respondents.

There are other victim services provided in the criminal justice system. These programs include victim impact panel, victim offender mediation and victim support and education programs. All these programs are directed towards maintaining the welfare of the victims after the crime has occurred. It also enables victims or the surviving family or friends of the family members to help the victims or survivors to recover from stress. The author provides the recovery formula for the general victim services. This formula is a measure to which victims of crimes are granted support and it is designed in a way that ensures crime victims understand the criminal justice systems.

Chapter 14: Diversity Issues in Victim Services

Diversity issues in victim services with diverse definitions and descriptions are covered in this chapter. Tarver (2002) reveals on the effect of crime on the minority groups. He recommends that crime will affect multiple minority groups such as the unemployed, parenting skills and those with cases of problematic relationships. In addition, the minority groups are the ones who suffer from crime victimizations thus the author concludes that through avoiding racism, justice will be obtained which will benefit the minority groups. Consequently, he gives the theoretical explanations of prejudice and discrimination. He further reveals that prejudice and discrimination among the multicultural groups hinders the process of effective crime justice system. Therefore, the author emphasizes that dealing with the criminal justice requires fair treatment and without prejudice or discrimination.

In addition, this chapter deals with advocate bias and gaining cultural competence (Tarver, 2002). The author points out the way in which to deal with advocate bias in order to avoid cases on misunderstandings. Mover, he comments that gaining cultural competence in crucial in criminal justice system. This is because cultural competence shifts beyond cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity. It acknowledges and responds to different unique views of different cultures globally. Therefore, one needs to understand cultural differences because different cultures play vital role in the society. In addition, the author reveals that delivering variety of services in the process of justice system is crucial. Variety of services needs to be delivered to a diverse culture. This chapter explores the way cultural diversity can affect service delivery thus there is need for the government to respond positively for cultural diversity for better reduction of crimes in the society.


Tarver, M. (2002). Multicultural issues in the criminal justice system. Boston, MA: Allyn and



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