Introduction to Political Science

Posted: September 3rd, 2013





Introduction to Political Science

Immigration has been a very sensitive issue since history. However, immigration has faced a lot of criticism over the years due to the different stances that countries or governments hold on certain people or religions because they associate them with terrorism. Based on such assumptions countries have been forced to adopt measures that vary from one country to another in efforts of securing the countries and the populace. However, such actions have not been devoid of any criticism because they are considered to be retrogressive and infringe on rights of people by racially profiling them and forcing them to undergo cumbersome security systems to prove that they are no harm. Illegal immigrants are currently identified by their race to determine their origin. In the current modern world, the Middle East has been under alienating the races in such countries based on the beliefs that the Middle Eastern people or Muslims are solely responsible for terror activities, which have led to the adoption of stringent rules for traveling .The Middle East citizens travel with fear because they are usually suspected of terror activity.

John Rawls developed a theory of the view that we should have equal liberties and social and economic inequalities should be in way that they provide the best benefits to those who are least disadvantaged in society. Justice is the heart of social institutions and they must be subjected to reform and be abolished so that they do not become biased .in addition different people have varying definitions of justice and thus they should know the ways of assigning equal justice and the distribution of the benefits and burdens of cooperation in the society.

Natural justices seems o have a different concept based on the different meanings to different people even thought the sole aim is the provision of justice. An institution is considered just if it does not make distinctions between people and exercises balance among people of all lifestyles. Hence, no one should be at a disadvantage or advantage due to their social or natural fortune in the course of justice. In addition, some principles of justice are justified because they are at times agreed upon during situations of equality.

Publius is the false name given to the amending and authorization of the constitution of the United States of America. This gives rise to the opinion that amending the constitution for the greater good of the American population. The fight for popularity is greater than the fight for public good. Moreover the vitality of the government is important to the security of liberty of the people and the state itself .The ambition or zeal with which the government fights for the right of the people is dangerous because of its firmness and efficiency. The constitution should prevent the rule by a group of individuals after their won selfish interests and focus on the large public domain .The ratification process of the constitution is plagued by the power hungry who seek to keep the status quo for their benefits.

Augustine calls for association with one another irrespective of our differences based on formation by God. Puts forth the opinion that we are all equal in God’s eyes as he made us all from the same origin thus we should not have difference amongst ourselves. The human race is deterred from doing bad things by laws. Considers punishment is because of going against the laws. Aquinas classifies the man into two societies, one that wishes to live after the flesh and the other that wishes to live after the spirit. Those who live after the flesh do so because the put man’s bodily pleasure are defined as epicurean philosophers whereas those who wish to live after the spirit put the good of men in the soul such that the goodness lives after the spirit. He considers that a man who loves God should love doing good and hate doing evil. States that there is no man who is born evil, we become evil by vice and it should not be hated as people themselves, but the vices should be hated. No one hates peace, but those who fight want peace that suits them.

In addition, if a man fails to follow God’s ways his soul cannot control neither the body nor the vices that are within him, thus it becomes difficult to prescribe any justice to such a man. Immigrants should be judged on their individual deeds and not communal. Those who do wrong should be punished adequately according to their mistakes. The Middle East is made up of evil and good people thus a blanket condemnation would not be sufficient to reprimand those that are responsible for the evil deeds. However, we are all considered equal before the eyes of God. This is very true because the only differences that arise are our races nothing more. Hence laws should be general and not be based on communities or religions.

Aquinas tries to provide reasoning between faith and politics in a world plagued by injustices in every level. Considers that politics should have positive role in the world and thus both faith and reason should work mutually for the benefit of the individuals who the law affects directly. Law should not be just a means to an end but it should be inclusive of sufficient reason to reach the result. Law should also provide the utmost happiness to the persons or community whom it affects, thus it should not be oppressive to the community but should be inclusive of the community to result in the greatest good. In relation to illegal immigration, the law should sufficiently bring the utmost peace and joy to that class or group of people whom the law affects directly.

The law of controlling immigration should be reasonable such that it considers the individual as part of a community. The immigrants have aided in the growth of countries’ economies and the society’s diversity. Thus, the law should consider their contributions towards these countries. The effect of the law on the community should be for the common good. However, the question arises as to whom common good should affect. Is it the immigrant populace or is it the native population .These questions should formulate a response pattern for immigration issues with sufficient reasoning. What governs us all is the internal dictate based on what is right and wrong, the basis for this internal dictate is eternal law that governs the makers of the laws are beliefs on a superior being in the world. The formulation of the laws on immigration and the Middle East should be based on three dictates, which are human law, natural law and eternal law.

Martin Luther explains that law has existed in the world since he beginning of the world through God’s will and ordinance. Luther is of the opinion that if the world were made up of only Christians there would be no need for law, as all would abide by the Christian values and the laws provided by God in the scriptures. Insists that there is no need for law for righteous people because they abide by the laws but for a society with unjust and unrighteous people, they need laws to govern their behavior and to force them to act in the right.

If people who are not righteous were not bound by laws, the world would be in total chaos because people would act as they pleased, like savages or beasts as he describes them. Thus, the illegality or legality of immigration is of no consequences to real Christians because they are governed by the laws. True Christian immigrants should not be restricted because they pose no real threat as they are like sheep that follow their leader without question. However, he states that for the common world there should be stringent laws that should govern immigrants who are not Christians.

The reason for this is that non-Christians do not follow the laws of God and thus they act as they please as if they were savages. For this reason, the Middle East, which is not a Christian region he states that they should be bound by, laws of the earth like an animal in chains to prevent them from devouring anything and everything around them. According to him adequate laws should be instituted to govern those that are not of the Christian faith to prevent them from going berserk in their ways, thus immigrants who are not Christians should be strictly be governed by stringent laws that would   enforce rule and order. As for the Middle East profiling, it should exist to control the non-Christians from becoming wicked in their ways. The laws for Middle East profiling would act as deterrence from evil acts such as terrorism.

I disagree with such sentiments because basing law would be tantamount to judging people, which is even against the Christian values that Luther has based his thinking on. Both righteous and non righteous are not pure and are bound to make mistakes or sin thus they should all be bound by the same laws as they are all equal before the laws.

Aristotle is of the opinion that man is a political animal who is finds satisfaction in a political community. Considers both man and woman as two different entities .in addition a city must aim at the highest good and the people can only achieve the good things of life if they live as citizens of the state. Moreover, he recognizes the citizenship of a person as being the holder of an office of administering power and justice and lays claim that the identification of a city lies with the   Aristotle considers that all the associations in society are formed for the greater good. He defines that a constitution exists in six forms, three, which are unjust, and three, which are just. He later explains that a constitution is just if it benefits those around the society and it is unjust when it aids only the ruling class.

He states that when a small class of people rules, the constitution becomes aristocratic when the ruling class is good, but if the ruling class is bad the constitution becomes oligarchy. He acknowledged that there might be abuse of power if the ruling elite is granted full power to rule over the country. However, when the masses rule it becomes harder for occurrence of corruption and other abuses of power if the governing laws are given superior powers than the governing bodies. He puts forth a proposal that there should be distributive justice to enable different people to experience different levels of justice with regard to their contributions to the state.

All the philosophers seem to agree on one point that the common good for a community begins with an individual .the individual contributes with his good deeds to the ov3erall goodness of the community and the state at large. Rawl seems to very relevant to the modern day whereby all the immigration and prejudice against the middle east is based on experiences with Muslims due to their activities which are associated with terror. He provides a strong basis for turning away from prejudices against people who are perceived to be different from the natives. He explicitly state that when God made all of us he did not consider and he will never consider us as different from one another but he views as the same in his image.

All men are born of good hearts and none is bad, as we happen to pick up vices that corrupt our minds resulting in actions that are deemed as evil. The citizens in the Middle East have picked up vices, which have corrupted their minds to execute actions, which are not good for the human race. The world is an unjust place filled with all the vices that man cannot escape but an individual is tasked with choosing what he or she ought to do


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