Literature Review: Milestone II

Posted: August 27th, 2021

Literature Review: Milestone II

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Literature Review: Milestone II


The objective of the papers by Ojo, Arno, and Tao (2020) and Scott-Sheldon and Chan (2020) is to show the spread of STIs across American states. For example, Ojo, Arno, and Tao (2020) pay much attention to gonorrhea morbidity rates in Indiana. The authors identify an increasing trend in the number of infections and recommend adopting practical intervention approaches to mitigate the problem. They recommend increased testing and treatment as possible ways for mitigating the problem. On the other hand, Scott-Sheldon and Chan (2020) examine how various STIs spread across the U.S. while particular attention to conditions such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia that they identify as severe concerns in many American states. 

Ibragimov et al. (2019) and Keller (2020) give valuable information about the disparities and social determinants that expose specific populations and individuals to STIs. Ibragimov et al. (2019) identify the pay gap as a significant economic factor that compels people to practice unprotected sex. People with lower minimum wages may be lured to indulge in practices that heighten their risk for contracting STIs. Keller (2020), on the other hand, attributes lack of education among some individuals to be a significant social determinant for STIs. Lowly educated people may not know the proper ways to protect themselves against diseases and may not be familiar with the most appropriate treatment or intervention methods. 

The articles by Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) and Shannon and Klausner (2019) give valuable information that may help to mitigate cases of STIs in the U.S. Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) believe that increasing testing and treatment are suitable ways for suppressing STI infection. The authors advocate for increased screening, arguing that this is the only effective way to understand the magnitude of the problem. Shannon and Klausner (2019) support the idea of increased testing and think that educating members of the public, especially those at high risk, will be instrumental in reducing the infection rate. 

Data Collected

The authors in the various articles gather qualitative and quantitative data that gives valuable insight into STIs and their effects. Ojo, Arno, and Tao (2020) conduct a cross-sectional analysis to collect qualitative data for the study. The data from individual participants help understand the prevalence of STIs in Indiana and hints at what must happen to suppress further infection. On the other hand, Scott-Sheldon and Chan (2020) gather quantitative data from various literacy sources that help to understand the nature of syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea in the U.S. The data that the authors present using tables and charts is essential in comprehending the problem. Ibragimov et al. (2019) collect quantitative data using the multivariable hierarchical linear framework, which helps to know why some people are at a higher risk of contracting STIs than others. They use mediation analyses to scrutinize data, which makes it easier to present the information to readers. Keller (2020) gathers qualitative and quantitative data from various secondary sources that help understand the disparities determining exposure and access to care. Keller (2020) expounds on the data to give viewers much insight into the matter under investigation. Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) and Shannon and Klausner (2019) both gather qualitative data from a sample of participants to help readers understand some of the most effective intervention methods for STIs. The data collection approach gives concrete findings and convinces readers to accept the results. 

Study Steps

Each of the identified authors adheres to the formal research process to arrive at the most relevant findings. All scholars start by clarifying the problem and the purpose of conducting the study. All researchers then highlight the research questions guiding their study to prepare readers on what to expect. The composers of all articles progress to outline the objectives of conducting their investigations and formulate a hypothesis that helps to predict possible outcomes. Afterward, all researchers notify readers of the study design they choose to complete their study and inform them about the sample group they use to acquire data. All scholars in the identified works collect relevant data from the sample and analyze what they receive to give final results.   


Each of the articles has its limitations that influence the outcome of the study. The chief limitation in the paper by Ojo, Arno, and Tao (2020) is that the authors do not explain different issues, which prompts readers to conduct more research on the various topics presented in the paper to acquire a clearer view. The chief limitation in the article by Scott-Sheldon and Chan (2020) despite gathering quantitative data, the authors do not use adequate graphical presentations to illustrate their points. The omission leaves readers with no option but to read through a significant portion of the article to acquire the relevant facts that could be easier to get using more charts and tables. The evident limitation in the papers by Ibragimov et al. (2019) and Keller (2020) is that the authors in both cases give extensive descriptions, which may not be suitable for readers who want to review the sources within a limited time. The prolonged explanation in both articles is not a wrong approach, especially when one has adequate time to go through the papers. Still, it may not be a valuable option for those who must analyze several other works. A standard limitation in the article by Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) and Shannon and Klausner (2019) is that both scholars do not compare STI rates in different states as readers would expect to make it possible to compare with the condition in Indiana. The other problem with the paper by Cohen, Council, and Chen (2019) is that the authors tend to rely on some works published many years ago, which may be misleading considering the constant changes in infection rates and mortality rates. Nonetheless, all articles are appropriate in their way, making them suitable for the study. 


The study is valuable for the project because it provides additional data and information that may help understand the magnitude and effects of STIs. Acquiring knowledge from various scholarly works provides awareness about what different authors think and creates a solid basis for argument and discussion. There is a need to conduct more research into the subject by exploring more recent literature that gives empirical evidence on the effects of STIs and how to address the problem. Acquiring more information using different sources helps to understand how infection rates vary from one place to another and provide room to know why some areas or regions record higher infection rates than others. More fundamentally, the study impacts health workers in many ways because they acquire valuable tips that may help to treat infected people and encourage those who develop emotional problems because of their condition. Thus, it is essential to pay considerable attention to the study’s findings to achieve the best outcome. 


Cohen, M., Council, O., & Chen, J. (2019). Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the era of antiretroviral treatment and prevention: the biologic basis for epidemiologic synergy. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 22(6), e25355.

Ibragimov, U., et al. (2019). States with higher minimum wages have lower STI rates among women: Results of an ecological study of 66 US metropolitan areas, 2003-2015. PLoS ONE, 14(10): e0223579.

Keller, L. (2020). Reducing STI cases: Young people deserve better sexual health information and services. Guttmacher Policy Review, 2,

Ojo, O., Arno, J., & Tao, G. (2020). Gonorrhea testing, morbidity, and reporting using an integrated sexually transmitted disease registry in Indiana: 2004–2016. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 2,

Shannon, C., & Klausner, J. (2019). The growing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: A neglected population. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 30(1), 137-143. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000578

Scott-Sheldon, L., & Chan, P. (2020). Increasing sexually transmitted infections in the U.S.: A call for action for research, clinical, and public health practice. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49, 13-17.

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