Posted: September 3rd, 2013








Diffusion of technology

In the developed industries, an increasing progress in initiating certain schemes and programs that promote technology diffusion has been witnessed. Technology diffusion seeks to explain reasons why countries adopt certain forms of technology. The main factors that assist in giving this explanation are political, social and economical. For example, in political factors, diffusion of technology could result from being influenced by government policies. The social factors can be drawn from the cultural preferences of a society that determine their receptiveness and adjustment to technology (Theyell, 2011).

Technology diffusion is concerned with distribution of technical data involving the consequent implementation of new technological devices and methods. United States is one of the countries that have taken measurements in ensuring effectiveness in Technology diffusion. For example, one of the steps involve creating awareness and technology exhibition, whereby the users involved are made to be more acquainted with the various forms of technological devices and applications they use. In addition, the users are also informed about the technological features including advantages, limitations and expenses among other things. For example, the technological institute in Georgia consisting of computers, production-monitoring systems and other types of software are made accessible for users to see and try making use of them (Theyell, 2011).

The second measure enabling the search of information and recommendation services, whereby attempts to minimize the expenses during the research process are made related to the diffusion of technology. Data services frequently increase extended value by verifying data requests and connecting the user requirements with the necessary materials. A good example in the United States is the program offered in the Pennsylvania University known for Technical Assistance, whereby various organizations can have access to technological data.

Another measure taken in technology diffusion involves technological support and consultancy, whereby measures are taken for evaluating, identifying and solving business technical problems, and establishing opportunities in advancing the type of technologies used in the industrial sector. In addition, the measures aim at identifying the constraints experienced by the users, and providers of technology and hence encourage the affected organizations in taking action. Several technological support services exist in technical centers. For example, technical centers that deal with providing employee staff with technical information, conduct technical evaluations are situated in cities like Oklahoma and Kansas.

Industrial Cluster

Clusters can be used to describe an association of interconnected businesses that drive the generation of wealth in a particular locality through the basic exportation of goods. The economic associations enable a better-off significant representation of confined industry drivers and regional motivation as compared to the ancient methods. An industry cluster embodies a complete value sequence of a broad industry that extends from the suppliers to the final goods and services. Clustered industries are geographically concerted and interrelated through the course of goods that is stronger as compared to the flow, which connects them to the remaining market (Ghemawat, 2011)

The movement of fixed and individual income retains an industrial cluster because of its overflow and matching results. The environmental accuracy of industrial segments and research bodies, including the University locality and specific industrial sectors might all have harmonizing and contradictory effects on high technical-based human income mobility. In this case, social investments obtained from Universities and tribal groups who settled earlier in the United States than the current foreign students can be considered as significant to the recent foreign student group in areas of employment positions and spatial allocation (Ghemawat, 2011).

An increased significance of how industry clusters being the major development blocks of national financial success through wealth is emerging and was acknowledged in the United States. It illustrates how following several years of transformation during the change to the new data-based industry, whereby procedures involved in globalization and technology modernization have altered the dynamics of urban regions have enabled the country a better positioning in economic growth and development.

After an analysis of various metropolitan cities in the United States, it was discovered that a major percentage of employment development was witnessed in those urban states in which some areas succeeded in being the core centers of the current knowledge-intensive economies. This was evidenced through information services offered concerning finance, health and the professional sectors. As a result, the transformation generated the entire production industrial areas, ranging from computer and electronic systems to multimedia and telecommunication systems (Khanna, Palepu and Sinha, 2005).

Other urban regions are becoming increasingly competitive through changing the ancient mode of production in industries including automobiles to adopting more industrious and technologically motivated industrial clusters. The concentration on industrial clusters explains this significant metropolitan development in urban areas.  The current economy is insisting on firmer associations between connected industries along with the civic and private organizations. Those associations are encouraged through being positioned in close environmental accuracy contained by the metropolitan areas. Associations involving corresponding organizations and industries appear to integrate and position in a similar location, repeatedly in the metropolitan areas in order to develop industry clusters (Babin & Harris 2011).

In this case, businesses in a certain cluster share regular markets and sellers, and manufacture for export in different localities within the United States. An example of this scenario could occur between several urban regions within the country or from around the world. The department of housing and urban development in the United States believes that the economic development witnessed in urban areas within the United States has been spawned by eighteen industrial clusters, which consists of a major share of employment in the country.

However, the industry clusters that are developing at a faster rate appear to be in the category of the service business, tourism and leisure, health and medical services, financial services, real estate, commerce and transport. In addition, the generative clusters are assessed using the increased rate in the added worth of each worker during the producing or material withdrawal including sectors of communication, electronic technology and machinery.


An institution refers to the type of system, which dominates the social dominion in the society. It consists of elements that make up the social existence. Institutions possess a huge responsibility within the social existence since it includes the acknowledgement whereby the interaction of individuals is organized based on explicit or implied regulations. From this account, institutions can be defined as systems that consist of conventional and common societal regulations that organize the social communications.

Institutions are of several types depending on factors such as education and health. However, the educational sector is the most common in the United States. Most of the education is supplied by the public department using management and financial assistance that comes from three areas including the government, national and local sections. Education of children is considered as obligatory within the American education system. Civic education is globally accessible, and the Institution’s programs, financing, teaching and employment among other rules are structured through the confined school boards, which are governed by the states’ legal system.

Obligatory education requirements are only acceptable through education systems including private schools, public schools and home-schooling systems. In public and private systems, the education program is categorized to three main sections including elementary, junior school and secondary learning systems. In a majority of these school categories, students are selected and divided based on age, which helps in classifying them to different learning grade levels. Almost every child in the United States enrolls in the civic education system at the age of five or six years (Khanna, Palepu and Sinha, 2005).

The education system comprises of twelve grading levels, including secondary and elementary education before qualifying for the college education system. Students who have completed their Secondary education have the liberty in enrolling at any college or university institution of their choice. Another category of the college education includes the community college systems, which offer education course degrees for a period of two years. In addition, they are financed by the public sector and are known to provide mainly certifications to qualify for career or job opportunities. However, private college institutions are financed by the private sector and are divided in several categories. For example, as other private institutions are acknowledged as huge research university centers, others function as small institutions that focus on offering undergraduate degrees (Khanna, Palepu and Sinha, 2005)




Ghemawat, P. (January 01, 2011). The Cosmopolitan Corporation. Harvard Business Review, 89, 5, 92-99.

Gregory Theyel. (November 08, 2011). Global Technology Diffusion and Industry Emergence: Diffusion of Wind Power Technology. University of Cambridge, 83, 6, 63-74.

Khanna, T., Palepu, K. G., & Sinha, J. (January 01, 2005). Strategies that fit emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 83, 6, 63-74.

Babin, B. J., & Harris, E. G. (2011). CB2, Resuming Internalization at Starbucks. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.



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