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Posted: November 26th, 2013

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1.  True False           If a program is converted from one language to another language one line at a time, with each line being executed as it is converted, the converter is called a “compiler”. Both the interpreter and compiler convert high-level language to machine language. The compiler compiles a set of machine language instructions and an interpreter executes line-by line before proceeding to the next line..

 

2.  True False          Simple arithmetic is performed by the part of the processor (CPU) known as the ALU. The Arithmetic Logic Unit is a part of the CPU and it performs calculations and comparisons.

 

3.  True False          “First-Generation” computers were built using vacuum tubes. The computers that were built using vacuum tubes were big and used a lot of energy. The ENIAC had 18 000 vacuum tubes and 1500 relays. It was 30 ton heavy and consumed 140 kilowatts of power (17).

 

4.  True False           A “von Neumann machine” is one that separates the storage of data from the storage of program code and instructions. The von Neumann machine stores both the data and the programs in the main memory.

 

5.  True False          “Third-Generation” computers were built using integrated circuits. The silicon integrated circuit was invented by Robert Noyce in 1958. Many transistors could be put in a single chip and this made the computers smaller, faster and cheaper (22).

 

6.  True False          Microprogramming was invented and used to add more instructions for programmers to use without having to change the hardware circuits to implement the new instructions. Though it has many different control sequences, microprogramming simplifies the control design

 

7.  True False          A computer that has a (more instructions) will generally be more complex to build and more expensive. Machine language, mnemonics and high-level languages are used when writing computer programs.

 

8.  True False          A computer that has a larger machine language (more instructions) will generally be easier to program at the ISA level. Instruction sets carry out basic instructions and each instruction is executed by several microinstructions.

 

9.  True False          RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. The microprocessor has a simple instruction set with a few addressing modes.

 

10.  True False        A main goal of RISC is to use microprogramming to perform as many instructions as possible so programmers can write simpler programs. Reduced instruction set computers speeds the computer operations that are frequently used and reduces the number of addressing modes and complicated instructions that are present in CISC.

 

 

 

1.  A certain computer system has 4 levels of languages. The actual physical machine can execute 2 billion L0 instructions per second. On average, each L1 instruction requires five L0 instructions, each L2 instruction requires four L1 instructions, and each L3 instruction requires two L2 instructions. On average, how long would it take the system to execute a 1000-line program written in the L3 language?

L0 2 billion per second

L1 = L0 (2b) * 5 = 10 billion

L2 = L1 (10b) * 4= 40 billion

L3= L2 (40b) * 2= 80 billion instructions per second

80 000 000 000 / 1000= 80 000 000

 

2.  Assume that The University of Findlay bought 3 MHz (megahertz) computers for the computer labs in the summer of 1991 and then replaced them with new computers every three years. If the increases in speed followed Moore’s Law, what would be the approximate speed of the current lab computers? Moore noted that each new generation of memory chips was introduced three years after the previous one and it had four times as much memory as its predecessor (27).

Year    MHZ

1991          3

1994         12

1997         48

2000        192

2003        768

2006        3 072

2009        12 288

2011        24 576

 

Work Cited

Tanenbaum Andrew. Structured Computer Organization. Portage, OH: Prentice Hall 2006

 

 

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