Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy

Posted: October 17th, 2013

Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy





Validity, Reliability, and Accuracy

The purpose of this assessment plan is to improve the students learning. The results will provide a basis for identifying ways of improving learning and ensuring that the students succeed.

Learning outcomes

After learning this unit, students should be able to:

  • Analyze what management means
  • Discuss the various elements of management
  • Evaluate different theories explaining management
  • Identify the skills needed for management
  • Identify the five main functions of management in organizations
  • Discuss how managers use different functions of management in their daily operations
  • Find ways to apply management functions in their lives

Assessment context

Students will use knowledge surveys to demonstrate their knowledge of the course content.

  • Define management
  • Explain the importance of management
  • Discuss the various elements of management
  • Identify the necessary managerial skills
  • Illustrate the importance and relation of managerial skills to managerial functions
  • Explain how management elements affect the different functions of management
  • Identify and discuss the five main functions of management
  • Distinguish between leading and controlling functions of management
  • Relate the importance of internal and external environment to management function

Holistic rubric


  • The student understands the concept of management and why it is necessary in the organization
  • The student understands the different elements of management and  how they affect managerial functions
  • The student is able to relate the different theories of management to management functions
  • The student has a clear understanding of managerial skills, and can identify how different skills affect the functioning of management
  • The student has mastered the different functions of management



  • The student understands management but does not demonstrate its necessity to the organization
  • The student is aware of the different elements of management, but does not connect them to managerial functions
  • The student can identify the different theories of management but does not give a clear understanding of how they relate to managerial functions
  • The students can identify the different skills needed by managers but is not able to relate them well to managerial functions
  • The student understands the different functions of management



  • The student does not have a clear idea of management, or demonstrate why it is necessary
  • The student does not know any of the elements of management and cannot relate them to managerial functions
  • The student does not understand the different theories of management
  • The student does not understand the different skills needed by managers, and he does not know their applicability or importance in management
  • The student does not know the functions of management



Testing constraints

Students will respond to the knowledge survey using one class lesson. The students should attempt to answer all the questions in detail within the specified time. The instructor will not give any student additional time to answer the questions, and neither will he issue the survey to absent students. Students will not use any sources when answering the question. They are expected to respond from memory, to determine the extent at which they remember the course content. This knowledge survey will not contribute to the student’s final grade. The survey is a measurement that will help the instructor and the students. It will enable the student to know their areas of weakness. Students will be able to find out the areas of the course, which they have not mastered, and they will be able to go back and conduct an in depth study on these areas. Because of this, it is not necessary for the students to use any sort of assistance or conduct any research when answering the questions. This will enable the students to be more truthful when answering the questions.

The assessment plan will enable the instructor to know whether the student has mastered the functions of management. The knowledge survey covers all the areas identified. The knowledge survey will enable the instructor to identify the areas where the students are weak, and how they can improve. It will enable the instructor to know how he can challenge the students to use the knowledge gained in a practical manner. The knowledge surveys enable the instructor to identify the students’ level of comprehension, by distinguishing between areas of elemental knowledge and areas of competence and mastery. Instructors can use knowledge surveys at different times of the course, to gauge what the students have learned.

Knowledge surveys give the students a chance to study for their exams. Since instructors use the surveys to determine the student’s level of knowledge in a specific area, the students can use the results to gauge their areas of weakness, and they can study to improve in these areas. The surveys benefit instructors by enabling them to analyze the course content and objectives, and revise them where necessary. The use of the knowledge surveys enables the instructors to know the students level of comprehension. Because of this, the instructor cannot issue the survey as term papers of research papers. The students need to write what they know from memory, so that they can identify their areas of weakness. The survey cannot be issued another time, since this will give the students a heads up. This avoids bad learning practices such as cramming and studying at the last minute. Students need to understand what they learn in class, and not just cram so that they can pass the exams.

In many cases, the instructors construct knowledge surveys to help the students in understanding the course content. In this case, however, the knowledge surveys acts as tools for the instructor because they will help him or her know where to help the student. The ultimate goal of the assessment plan is to ensure student learning. Using the surveys, the instructor is able to know the student’s area of weakness without using tests. The results of the survey will not contribute to the students’ final grade, or any other grade for that matter. Therefore, the students should not feel intimidated because of the surveys. The time constraints enhance the seriousness of the survey. They are the instructor’s way of letting the students know that although the knowledge survey will not contribute to the final grade, it is imperative that the student take the survey. It is mandatory since it is part of the course work. Unlike typical knowledge surveys, this survey will not be a way for the student to indicate that they can answer the questions, but the students are expected to answer the questions. They should attempt all the questions in the survey, even if they might not know all the answers.




Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. (2010). Educational testing and measurement: Classroom application and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

Wirth, R. K., & Perkins, D. (2005). Knowledge surveys: An indispensable course design and assessment tool. Retrieved from

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